This article is about texts in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. South Asia, particularly Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. In Hinduism, sutras tattvartha sutra pdf download a distinct type of literary composition, a compilation of short aphoristic statements.
In Buddhism, sutras, also known as suttas, are canonical scriptures, many of which are regarded as records of the oral teachings of Gautama Buddha. A 17th-century birch bark manuscript of ancient Panini Sutra, a treatise on grammar, found in Kashmir. In the context of literature, sūtra means a distilled collection of syllables and words, any form or manual of “aphorism, rule, direction” hanging together like threads with which the teachings of ritual, philosophy, grammar, or any field of knowledge can be woven. A sūtra is different from other components such as Shlokas, Anuvyakhayas and Vyakhyas found in ancient Indian literature.
Sutras first appear in the Brahmana and Aranyaka layer of Vedic literature. They grow in the Vedangas, such as the Shrauta Sutras and Kalpa Sutras. A sutra by itself is condensed shorthand, and the threads of syllable are difficult to decipher or understand, without associated scholarly Bhasya or deciphering commentary that fills in the “woof”. The oldest manuscripts that have survived into the modern era, that contain extensive sutras, are part of the Vedas dated to be from the late 2nd millennium BCE through mid 1st-millennium BCE. The Aitareya Aranyaka for example, states Winternitz, is primarily a collection of sutras. Some of the earliest surviving specimen of sutras of Hinduism are found in the Anupada Sutras and Nidana Sutras. A larger collection of ancient sutra literature in Hinduism corresponds to the six Vedangas, or six limbs of the Vedas.
These are six subjects that were called in the Vedas as necessary for complete mastery of the Vedas. The fourth and often the last layer of philosophical, speculative text in the Vedas, the Upanishads, too have embedded sutras such as those found in the Taittiriya Upanishad. Sanskrit text, composed by Badarayana, likely sometime between 200 BCE to 200 CE. The text contains 555 sutras in four chapters that summarize the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the Upanishads. 196 sutras on Yoga including the eight limbs and meditation. The Yoga Sutras were compiled around 400 CE by Patanjali, taking materials about yoga from older traditions.
Sanskrit texts of the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, including the sutras on dualism of Kapila. Soul is, for there is no proof that it is not. This different from body, because heterogeneous. Also because it is expressed by means of the sixth. Soul is, for there is no proof that it is not, since we are aware of “I think”, because there is no evidence to defeat this. Therefore all that is to be done is to discriminate it from things in general. This soul is different from the body because of heterogeneous or complete difference between the two.
Vaisheshika Sutra – is the foundational text of the Vaisheshika school of Hinduism, dated to between 4th-century BCE to 1st-century BCE, authored by Kanada. Nyaya school of Hindu philosophy composed by Akṣapada Gautama, sometime between 6th-century BCE to 2nd-century CE. Mimamsa Sutras – is the foundational text of the Mimamsa school of Hinduism, authored by Jaimini, and it emphasizes the early part of the Vedas, that is rituals and religious works as means to salvation. Artha-sutras – the Niti Sutras of Chanakya and Somadeva are treatises on governance, law, economics, and politics. Versions of Chanakya Niti Sutras have been found in Sri Lanka and Myanmar.
Some scholars consider that the Buddhist use of sutra is a faulty Sanskritization of the Prakrit or Pali word sutta and that the latter actually represented Sanskrit sūkta, “well spoken, good news”. In Buddhism, sutra or sutta refers mostly to canonical scriptures. These teachings are assembled in part of the Tripiṭaka which is called the Sutta Pitaka. In the Jain tradition, sutras are an important genre of “fixed text”, which used to be memorized. The Kalpa Sūtra is, for example, a Jain text with scripture of monastic rules, as well as the biographies of the Jain Tirthankaras.
Many sutras discuss all aspects of ascetic and lay life in Jainism. Various ancient sutras particularly from the early 1st millennium CE, for example, states M. The Yoga Sutra of Patanjali: A Biography. Singing to the Jinas: Jain Laywomen, Mandal Singing, and the Negotiations of Jain Devotion.
Gender and Salvation: Jaina Debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women. Ancient Board Games in Perspective: Papers from the 1990 British Museum Colloquium, with Additional Contributions. Music and Musical Thought in Early India. Scholastic Sanskrit, A Manual for Students”.
The curve above the three dots denotes Siddhashila, many sutras discuss all aspects of ascetic and lay life in Jainism. The Yoga Sutras were compiled around 400 CE by Patanjali, the Philosophy of Spiritual Life. Gender and Salvation: Jaina Debates on the Spiritual Liberation of Women. This page was last edited on 23 February 2018, the text contains 555 sutras in four chapters that summarize the philosophical and spiritual ideas in the Upanishads. Singing to the Jinas: Jain Laywomen — that is rituals and religious works as means to salvation. Ancient Board Games in Perspective: Papers from the 1990 British Museum Colloquium, with Additional Contributions. For there is no proof that it is not, 196 sutras on Yoga including the eight limbs and meditation.