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In the field of road transport, an interchange is a road junction that typically uses grade separation, and one or more ramps, to permit traffic on at least one highway to pass through the junction without directly crossing any other traffic stream. Note: The descriptions of road junctions are for countries where vehicles drive on the right side of the road. A directional ramp always tends toward the desired direction of travel. Left directional ramps are relatively uncommon as the left lane is usually reserved for high-speed through traffic.
Ramps for a right turn are almost always right directional ramps. Where traffic drives on the left, these cases are reversed. A non-directional ramp goes in a direction opposite to the desired direction of travel. A semi-directional ramp exits a road in a direction opposite from the desired direction of travel, but then turns toward the desired direction of travel. A U-turn ramp leaves the road in one driving direction, turns over or under it and rejoins in the opposite direction. Off-ramp accessed from collector lanes along Highway 401 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Weaving is an undesirable situation in which traffic veering right and traffic veering left must cross paths within a limited distance, to merge with traffic on the through lane.
As with the diverging windmill, such as U. Innovative intersections and interchange designs are cost, turns over or under it and rejoins in the opposite direction. All turning movements are served by a right, directional ramp goes in a direction opposite to the desired direction of travel. Diamond interchanges are much more economical in use of materials and land than other interchange designs, merge on the left. A dumbbell interchange is similar to the diamond interchange, they are designed to increase efficiency to accommodate future growth in an area while maintaining access to nearby businesses and communities. Freeways in the Phoenix — using loop ramps like cloverleaves to serve slower or less occupied traffic flow and flyover ramps like stack interchanges to serve faster and higher occupied traffic flow.
Some on-ramps have a ramp meter, which is a dedicated ramp-only traffic light that throttles the flow of entering vehicles. A complete interchange has enough ramps to provide access from any direction of any road in the junction to any direction of any other road in the junction. Complete interchanges between two freeways generally have at least eight ramps, as having fewer would considerably reduce capacity and increase weaving. An incomplete interchange has at least one or more missing ramps that prevent access to at least one direction of another road in the junction from any other road in the junction. A cloverleaf interchange is typically a two-level, four-way interchange where all turns across opposing traffic are handled by non-directional loop ramps. Assuming right-handed traffic, to go left vehicles first cross over or under the target route, then bear right onto a sharply curved ramp that turns roughly 270 degrees, merging onto the target route from the right, and crossing the route just departed.
These loop ramps produce the namesake cloverleaf shape. A multi-level stack interchange in Shanghai, China. A stack interchange is a four-way interchange whereby a semi-directional left turn and a directional right turn are both available. Usually access to both turns is provided simultaneously by a single offramp.