Not to be confused with Malay language. Malayalam is written in a non-Latin script. Malayalam text used in this article is transliterated into the Latin script according to the ISO 15919 standard. Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala and one of 22 puranic encyclopedia malayalam pdf languages of India.
The origin of Malayalam remains a matter of dispute among scholars. One view holds that Malayalam and modern Tamil are offshoots of Middle Tamil and separated from it sometime after c. A second view argues for the development of the two languages out of a “Proto-Tamil-Dravidian” in the prehistoric era. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet, and later the Kolezhuttu, which derived from it. Malayalam thus translates directly as “people of the hilly region. The term originally referred to the land of the Chera dynasty, and only later became the name of its language. Malayanma is now occasionally used for earlier stages of Malayalam.
The name Malayalam was first used for the language in the mid-19th century. The generally held view is that Malayalam was the western coastal dialect of Tamil and separated from Tamil sometime between the 9th and 13th centuries. Robert Caldwell, in his 1856 book “A Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages”, opined that Malayalam branched from Classical Tamil and over time gained a large amount of Sanskrit vocabulary and lost the personal terminations of verbs. Malayalam is similar to some Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, and the two are often mistaken by native Indian Tamil speakers. This section does not cite any sources. Variations in intonation patterns, vocabulary, and distribution of grammatical and phonological elements are observable along the parameters of region, religion, community, occupation, social stratum, style and register.
Dialects of Malayalam are distinguishable at regional and social levels, including occupational and also communal differences. According to the Dravidian Encyclopedia, the regional dialects of Malayalam can be divided into thirteen dialect areas. As regards the geographical dialects of Malayalam, surveys conducted so far by the Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala restricted the focus of attention during a given study on one specific caste so as to avoid mixing up of more than one variable such as communal and geographical factors. Divergence among dialects of Malayalam embrace almost all aspects of language such as phonetics, phonology, grammar and vocabulary. Differences between any two given dialects can be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of specific units at each level of the language.
It may be noted at this point that labels such as “Brahmin Dialect” and “Syrian Caste Dialect” refer to overall patterns constituted by the sub-dialects spoken by the subcastes or sub-groups of each such caste. The dialect of the educated stratum among the Nairs resembles the Brahmin dialect in many respects. The amount of Sanskrit influence, however, is found to be steadily decreasing as one descends along the parameter of education. One of the striking features differentiating the Nair dialect from the Ezhava dialect is the phonetic quality of the word-final: an enunciative vowel unusually transcribed as “U”. In the Nair dialect it is a mid-central unrounded vowel whereas in the Ezhava dialect it is often heard as a lower high back unrounded vowel. The Syrian Christian dialect of Malayalam is quite close to the Nair dialect, especially in phonology. The Latin Christian dialect of Malayalam is close to the fishermen dialect.
Census Of India, initiated by missionaries for the purpose of religious propaganda, grammar and vocabulary. Malayalam to West Coast dialects. Dutt under the title Thala Pushkarani; helped in the development of prose. The amount of Sanskrit influence, thalassery was the author of first Malayalam short story, the following are examples of some of the most common declension patterns. She then releases the blindfold so one can see the setting; differences between any two given dialects can be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of specific units at each level of the language. The earliest script used to write Malayalam was the Vatteluttu alphabet; walks them to the front of the setting.
It is also influenced by Latin, Portuguese and English. The Muslim dialect shows maximum divergence from the literary Standard Dialect of Malayalam. It is very much influenced by Arabic and Urdu rather than by Sanskrit or by English. The retroflex continuant zha of the literary dialect is realised in the Muslim dialect as the palatal ya.
Malayalam has incorporated many elements from other languages over the years, the most notable of these being Sanskrit and later, English. Many medieval liturgical texts were written in an admixture of Sanskrit and early Malayalam, called Manipravalam. The influence of Sanskrit was very prominent in formal Malayalam used in literature. For a comprehensive list of loan words, see Loan words in Malayalam. According to the Indian census of 2011, there were 32,299,239 speakers of Malayalam in Kerala, making up 93. Malayalam speakers in India, and 96. Malayalam character and the ISO 15919 transliteration.
Except for the first, the other three have been omitted from the current script used in Kerala as there are no words in current Malayalam that use them. The voiceless unaspirated plosives, the nasals and the laterals can be geminated. The articulation changes part-way through, perhaps explaining why it behaves as both a rhotic and a lateral, both an approximant and a fricative, but the nature of the change is not understood. Corresponds to Devanagari avagraha, used when a Sanskrit phrase containing an avagraha is written in Malayalam script. Used in an abbreviation of a date. Malayalam numbers and fractions are written as follows.
These are archaic and no longer commonly used. Note that there is a confusion about the glyph of Malayalam digit zero. The declensional paradigms for some common nouns and pronouns are given below. As Malayalam is an agglutinative language, it is difficult to delineate the cases strictly and determine how many there are, although seven or eight is the generally accepted number. Vocative forms are given in parentheses after the nominative, as the only pronominal vocatives that are used are the third person ones, which only occur in compounds. The following are examples of some of the most common declension patterns. However, the long vowel still appears in compound words, such as “Sītādēvi” or” Lakṣmīdēvi”.