Façade of the Church of the Gesù, the first truly Baroque façade. Whereas the Renaissance drew on the wealth and power of the Italian courts and was a blend of secular and baroque architecture characteristics pdf forces, the Baroque was, initially at least, directly linked to the Counter-Reformation, a movement within the Catholic Church to reform itself in response to the Protestant Reformation.
The architecture of the High Roman Baroque can be assigned to the papal reigns of Urban VIII, Innocent X and Alexander VII, spanning from 1623 to 1667. Dissemination of Baroque architecture to the south of Italy resulted in regional variations such as Sicilian Baroque architecture or that of Naples and Lecce. A synthesis of Bernini, Borromini and Cortona’s architecture can be seen in the late Baroque architecture of northern Europe which paved the way for the more decorative Rococo style. Paris by François Mansart—and then throughout Europe. During the 17th century, Baroque architecture spread through Europe and Latin America, where it was particularly promoted by the Jesuits.
Michelangelo’s late Roman buildings, particularly St. Peter’s Basilica, may be considered precursors to Baroque architecture. Though the tendency has been to see Baroque architecture as a European phenomenon, it coincided with, and is integrally enmeshed with, the rise of European colonialism. Colonialism required the development of centralized and powerful governments with Spain and France, the first to move in this direction. A number of ecclesiastical buildings of the Baroque period in Rome had plans based on the Italian paradigm of the basilica with a crossed dome and nave, but the treatment of the architecture was very different from what had been carried out previously. One of the first Roman structures to break with the Mannerist conventions exemplified in the Gesù, was the church of Santa Susanna, designed by Carlo Maderno. Probably the most well known example of such an approach is Saint Peter’s Square, which has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theatre.
The piazza, designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, is formed principally by two colonnades of free standing columns centred on an Egyptian obelisk. Bernini’s rival, the architect Francesco Borromini, produced designs that deviated dramatically from the regular compositions of the ancient world and Renaissance. His building plans were based on complex geometric figures, his architectural forms were unusual and inventive and he employed multi-layered symbolism in his architectural designs. Following the death of Bernini in 1680, Carlo Fontana emerged as the most influential architect working in Rome. His early style is exemplified by the slightly concave façade of San Marcello al Corso. The 18th century saw the capital of Europe’s architectural world transferred from Rome to Paris. The Italian Rococo, which flourished in Rome from the 1720s onward, was profoundly influenced by the ideas of Borromini.
The last phase of Baroque architecture in Italy is exemplified by Luigi Vanvitelli’s Caserta Palace, reputedly the largest building erected in Europe in the 18th century. Indebted to contemporary French and Spanish models, the palace is skillfully related to the landscape. In the north of Italy, the monarchs from the House of Savoy were particularly receptive to the new style. Fluid forms, weightless details, and the airy prospects of Juvarra’s architecture anticipated the art of Rococo.
Although his practice ranged well beyond Turin, Juvarra’s most arresting designs were created for Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia. Among the many who were profoundly influenced by the brilliance and diversity of Juvarra and Guarini, none was more important than Bernardo Vittone. This Piedmontese architect is remembered for an outcrop of flamboyant Rococo churches, quatrefoil in plan and delicate in detailing. His sophisticated designs often feature multiple vaults, structures within structures and domes within domes.
The Baroque style was introduced in Malta in the early 17th century, possibly by the Bolognese architect and engineer Bontadino de Bontadini, who was responsible for the construction of the Wignacourt Aqueduct between 1612 and 1615. Baroque architecture became popular after Francesco Bounamici designed the Church of the Jesuits in Valletta in 1635. The architect Lorenzo Gafà designed many Baroque churches between the 1660s and the 1700s, including the Church of St. The Baroque style remained popular in Malta until the late 18th and early 19th century, when the neoclassical style was introduced. However, traditional Maltese architecture continued to have significant Baroque influences. As Italian Baroque influences penetrated across the Pyrenees, they gradually superseded in popularity the restrained classicizing approach of Juan de Herrera, which had been in vogue since the late 16th century. In contrast to the art of Northern Europe, the Spanish art of the period appealed to the emotions rather than seeking to please the intellect.
The development of the style passed through three phases. Between 1680 and 1720, the Churriguera popularized Guarini’s blend of Solomonic columns and composite order, known as the “supreme order”. The combination of the Native American and Moorish decorative influences with an extremely expressive interpretation of the Churrigueresque idiom may account for the full-bodied and varied character of the Baroque in the American colonies of Spain. Even more than its Spanish counterpart, American Baroque developed as a style of stucco decoration.
To the north, the richest province of 18th-century New Spain—Mexico—produced some fantastically extravagant and visually frenetic architecture known as Mexican Churrigueresque. Paoay Church in the Philippines is a fine example of Earthquake Baroque. Earthquake Baroque is a style of Baroque architecture found in the Philippines, which suffered destructive earthquakes during the 17th century and 18th century, where large public buildings, such as churches, were rebuilt in a Baroque style. The interior of the São Roque Church in Lisbon, Portugal illustrates the rich Baroque architecture in its chapels, including the chapel of St.